Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Sui, D.Z., Elwood, S. and M.F. Goodchild (eds.), 2013. Crowdsourcing GeographicKnowledge:Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in Theory and Practice. Berlin: Springer.pp 105-122DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-4587-2_7

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Within Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), Citizen Science stands out as aclass of activities that require special attention and analysis.Citizen scienceis likely to be the longest running of VGI activities, with some projectsshowing continuous effort over a century. In addition, many projects are characterised bya genuine element of volunteering and contribution of informationfor the benefit of human knowledge and science. They are also tasks where data quality and uncertainty cometo the fore whenevaluating the validity of…